Domains of the Gender Transformative Framework for Nutrition
Equitable Food Systems
Gender norms and power dynamics drive equitable nutrition security within food systems. Women’s roles within food systems vary significantly, often disproportionately, touching all aspects of the value chain – spanning agricultural production, food processing and storage, retail, and consumption.
Gender and Adolescent Responsive Health and Nutrition Systems
Health systems are the primary delivery channel for nutrition-specific interventions. Universal health coverage aims to ensure that all people to have access to quality health and nutrition services. Women and girls face multiple gender-based barriers to high quality and acceptable health care.
Education of women and girls enables them to act on their right to good nutrition. It is associated with better hygiene and care-seeking practices during illness, and reduced rates of stunting. It also provides a protective space for girls – away from early marriage and related early pregnancy.
Women’s economic empowerment is linked with positive impacts on nutrition, family planning, maternal and child mortality, delayed marriage, reduced Gender-Based Violence, and improved education. Women’s participation in paid economies is limited in many low-to-middle-income contexts relative to men’s participation.
Safe and Equitable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Access to WASH has a significant impact on nutrition. Women and girls are disproportionately responsible for water collection. Lack of household toileting facilities forces women and girls to travel long distances to defecate or manage menstruation, making them vulnerable to violence.
Women and girls experiencing violence and stress can have poorer nutrition outcomes. Gender inequalities create a persistent and pervasive environment of stress and trauma. Strategies for managing stress, building resilience, positive mental health, and social inclusion support gender equality and positive nutrition outcomes.
Environmental and Political Resilience
Fragile and conflict-affected contexts have some of the highest rates of malnutrition. Vulnerability during instability and climate shocks reflects preexisting gender inequalities, limiting women and girls’ access to resources and decision-making power.